So what is the treatment of Type-I Diabetes. Diabetes is the disease of the century. 9.1 million People have been reported in the United States as suffering from diabetes. According to estimates 8.1 million People may yet still be undiagnosed and still unaware of their condition. According to a rough estimate about 1.4 million cases of diabetes are diagnosed in the United States each year. 1 in every 10 adults who are 20 years or older has diabetes. Diabetes is generally of two types.
- Type-I Diabetes in which the Islet cells of the pancreas are killed by the immune function of the body.
- Type-II Diabetes in which the human body cells fails to respond to the insulin secreted by the pancreatic beta cells
A genuine cure for both types of Diabetes is yet still unavailable. Diabetes can be managed by insulin therapy and insulin releasing drugs that are only classed as management rather than cure.
Recent studies are nowadays demonstrating that a cure may be possible by manipulating the Bone Marrow Stem Cells to take up the action of pancreatic beta cells and subsequently become and act like them. In these efforts researchers will then be able to transplant these Pluripotent Bone Marrow Stem Cells into the pancreas of the individual to produce insulin. A recent study was undertaken to evaluate the targeted induction of pluripotent bone marrow mesenchymal cells to have effectiveness on restoration of pancreatic islet cells in mice. The aim established by the researcher for the study was to evaluate whether BMSCs can be target-induced by pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) to have effectiveness for the restoration of diabetic islet injury mostly observed in Type-I Diabetes.
To establish this Bone Marrow Stem Cells were co-cultured with Pancreatic Stem Cells. Two markers of pancreatic stem cells Nestin and Neurogenin3 were then evaluated in the co-cultured BMSCs to discover if they induced any effects. The diabetic rats were intravenously injected with the target-induced BMSCs.
It was found that after co-culture, the mRNA expressions, protein contents and distributions of Nestin and Neurogenin3, were dramatically high in BMSCs, indicating that they were successfully target-induced to become pancreatic stem-like cells. Serum glycated albumin levels and glycogen contents were dramatically affected as well as islet morphology of the diabetic rats. The target-induced BMSCs had significant effect on serum insulin and C-peptide contents also in its wake.
In conclusion, it was discovered that BMSCs could be target-induced by pancreatic stem cells to have effectiveness on the pancreatic restoration of islet cells in diabetic rats. Hence the study showed a promising result. That bone marrow stem cells can be induced by pancreatic stem cells if co-cultured in the appropriate condition to generate insulin producing cells that can then be transplanted into the hosts / recipients that will work like insulin producing cells. These are promising conclusions from a medical point of view and indicate that a future cure for diabetes is underway. It just needs to go through all the phases of research and reach human trials. We can look forward to a permanent cure for diabetes in the coming decade.